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Serpent Headdresses & Headdress and Shrine Figure (a-Tshol)

1979.206.101.jpg

1979.206.101

hb_1978.412.339.jpg

1978.412.339

1978.412.301.jpg

1978.412.521

MMA Web Resources

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MMA Collection Database

Timeline of Art History:

Other Web Resources

Published Resources

Links with shelf numbers refer to WATSONLINE, the online library catalog of the Museum. Photocopies of each source reference are available in the Goldwater Library. Certain electronic resources are accessible within the museum or with an approved remote connection. For those with only a limited amount of time, we suggest those titles in boldface below.

Information specific to bansonyi in English, as well as illustrations:

  • Lamp, Frederick. Art of the Baga: A Drama of Cultural Reinvention. New York, 1996. (O5CB L23)
    • Detailed explanation of the source, meaning, and use of the bansonyi in Baga ceremonies, as well as illustrations of bansonyi from the Museum Rietberg in Zurich and from the collection of Herbert and Paula Molner in Chicago.
  • Phillips, Tom, ed. Africa: The Art of a Continent. Munich, 1995. (O3 A25a)
    • Brief explanation of the bansonyi's purpose, as well as an illustration of one from a private collection.
  • Museum of Primitive Art (New York, N.Y.). Sculpture from Three African Tribes. New York, 1959. (O2 N55 3 REF)
    • Illustrations of four bansonyi.
  • Art of Oceania, Africa, and the Americas from the Museum of Primitive Art : an exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, May 10-August 17, 1969. New York, 1969. (K2 N522a)
    • Illustrations of two bansonyi.
  • Robbins, Warren M. African Art in American Collections. New York, 1966. (O3 R63a)
    • Illustration of a bansonyi from the Museum of Primitive Art in New York.
  • The Language of African Art: A Guest Exhibition of the Museum of African Art and the Smithsonian Institute Fine Arts and Portait Gallery Building. May 24-September 7, 1970. Washington D.C., 1970. (O2 W335 )
    • Brief statement of the purpose of bansonyi, as well as illustrations of three bansonyi.

Information specific to bansonyi (French):

  • Geertuyen, Godelieve van. “La Fonction de la sculpture dans une société africaine: Les Baga, Nalu et Landuman (Guinée).” Africana Gandensia 1 (1976): 63-94. (A A2598 v.1)
    • Explanation of the purpose of sculpture in African society, with specific mention of nimbas, bansonyi, and eleks. Extremely detailed descriptions of bansonyi, in general, and a statement of their purpose and use.
  • Appia, Beatrice. “Masques de Guinee francaise et de Casamance: d’apres des dessins d’enfants noirs.” Journal de la Societe des africanistes 13 (1943): 160-173. (A S672 v.13)
    • Detailed explanation of every aspect of bansonyi.
  • Delange, Jacqueline. “Bensonyi du pays Baga.” Objets et mondes 2 (Spring 1962): 3-12. (A O125 v.2)
    • The history of bansonyi and their function in Baga society.
  • Appia, Beatrice. “Notes sue le Genie des Eaux en Guinee.” Journal de la Societe des africanistes 14-15 (1944-1945): 33-34, 36-37. (A S672 v.14-15)
    • Brief synopsis of the traditional story accompanying the bansonyi.

Information specific to eleks in English, as well as illustrations:

  • Lamp, Frederick. Art of the Baga: A Drama of Cultural reinvention. New York, 1966. (O5CB L23)
    • Detailed and specific explanation of every aspect of eleks.
  • Jeanneret, Andre. “’Elek,’ une sculpture rituelle des Baga.” Les Musées de Genève Bulletin 35 (mai 1963): 14-15. [Uh-oh: VF?]
    • A general overview of the elek: its appearance, history, and function.
  • Vogel, Susan, ed. For Spirits and Kings: African Art from the Paul and Ruth Tishman Collection. New York, 1981. (O2 N545f)
    • Description of the functions of the elek in Baga society.
  • Phillips, Tom, ed. Africa: The Art of a Continent. Munich, 1955. (O3 A25a)
    • Brief summary of the purpose of the elek.
  • Fagg, William, B. “Two Woodcarvings from the Baga of French Guinea.” Man 47 (1947): 104-106. [A M226 v.47 or Online]
    • Detailed description of the two eleks housed in the British Museum and the Musée de l'Homme.
  • Paulme-Schaeffner, Denise. “’Elek’ a Ritual Sculpture of the Baga of French Guinea.” Man 59 (1959): 28-29. [A M226 v.59 or Online]
    • Preliminary research on the purposes of the eleks (elaborating on the article above).
  • Bamert, Arnold. Africa: Tribal Art of Forest and Savanna. London, 1980. (O3 B19)
    • Very brief statement of function.
  • Robbins, Warren M. African Art in American Collections. New York, 1966. (O3 R63a)
    • Illustration of the elek in the Commercial Museum in Philadelphia.
  • Griaule, Marcel. Folk Art of Black Africa. New York, 1950. (O3 G84f)
    • Illustration of an elek (collection unknown).
  • Escultura Africana no Musei de Etnologia do Ultramar. Lisbon, 1968. (O3 L76)
    • Two illustrations of eleks.

Information specific to eleks (French):

  • Geertruyen, Godelieve van. “La Fonction de la sculpture dans une société africaine: Les Baga, Nalu et Landuman (Guinée).” Africana Gandensia 1 (1976): 63-94. (A A2598 v.1)
    • Explanation of the purpose of sculpture in African society, with specific mention of nimbas, bansonyi, and eleks. Extremely detailed descriptions of eleks, in general, and a statement of their purpose and use.

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